Special Needs Introduction
Sandra Hutchinson, Editor of The Good Schools Guide - Special Educational Needs provides a practical introduction.
Some special needs are easy to spot, others are only determined once a child has experienced considerable difficulties, frustrations or social and emotional problems.
In the years since the first edition of our special needs guide diagnosis of, and provision for SEN have improved but both can still be a minefield. We have a lot of help and advice on this site but if you are unsure where to start, make this article your first port of call.
Identifying different kinds of special educational needs
Few children fit a condition perfectly – if they do, we tend to say they are a ‘classic’ case. Most will not be straightforward, some will be comorbid, perhaps a dyslexic with dyspraxia and a touch of ADD, or a child with ASD who also has Down’s syndrome.
Just as special needs are hard to define so the perfect provision can be difficult to uncover; having a wheelchair-accessible school does not make it a haven for the wheelchair user.
Signs of special educational needs in school-age children
Look out for the child who:
- Is easily distracted.
- Engages in disruptive or aggressive behaviour.
- Gets angry with themselves, often over seemingly trivial issues.
- May be a perfectionist and/or have demonstrably low self-esteem.
- Does not enjoy school.
- Becomes stressed when starting tasks or when asked to work on their own.
- Is reluctant to do homework, especially unaided.
- Makes little or no progress at school (some children may even regress).
- Avoids reading or takes no pleasure from it or can read but reads slowly.
- Has good eyesight but is monosyllabic when reading aloud (or may refuse to read out loud). May struggle to scan text.
- Declares they ‘hate maths’ when in reality ‘they don’t get it’.
- Is disorganised — late settling to work, last to finish packing up and leaving the classroom. ‘Forgets’ to do homework or revise for tests.
- Forgets what the task is; has trouble remembering more than two or three instructions at once.
- Has spider hand-writing; presentation of work is messy and paintings indecipherable.
- Is articulate but can’t or won’t put pen to paper.
- Has an awkward pencil grip. May have difficulty remembering where to start writing and/or struggle to copy accurately from the board.
- Bumps into things, is clumsy and has poor spatial awareness. May have difficulty hopping, jumping or catching a ball and will literally trip over own feet.
- Hears but frequently mis-hears what is said.
- May be able to repeat sentences verbatim but not comprehend meaning or grasp nuance.
- Finds making and sustaining friendships problematic, even avoiding social contact altogether.
- May be shy and withdrawn and/or avoid eye-contact altogether.
- Has difficulty with change: can find even pleasant surprises upsetting.
Most children will experience some of the symptoms listed to a lesser or greater extent but, if you can count off more than three or four and have concerns, it may be time to consider enlisting extra help. These are all characteristics of normal childhood too, which is why some SENs are difficult to spot. Importantly, don’t wait for teachers to flag up difficulties; parents, with their holistic knowledge of their child are often the first to spot difficulties. Unless a school tests every child (and some now screen all children on entry — worries about future litigation abound), some children will be missed.
When should I ask for my child to be helped?
You don’t have to have a formal diagnosis to request help for your child. If you suspect your child has a ‘learning difference’ or difficulty, or you’re just worried about them, seek advice; your child’s class teacher, the school SENCo, GP or health-visitor are good starting points. Depending on the type of need and your circumstances, help may be available before your child starts school.
Whatever your thoughts, we cannot stress enough the importance of getting expert, professional opinion, sooner rather than later.
Who is who?
In addition to teaching staff there are a number of professionals whose role involves helping children with special educational needs:
- Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCo's) - coordinate SEN provision within schools.
- Speech and Language Therapists (SALT) - deal with a range of issues including how children speak and how they communicate and interact with others
- Physiotherapists (PT) - work to overcome physical difficulties including: posture, core stability, sensory integration and strength.
- Occupational therapists (OT) - help children with motor skills, coordination and daily functioning.
- Educational psychologists (Ed Psychs or EPs) - uncover a child's underlying difficulties and problems through a range of tests, sub tests and assessments.
- Music therapists use music to encourage communication and facilitate positive change.
- Play therapists - play is not something all children engage in automatically, therapists can assist those who find play problematic.
Action to take if you think your child has a special educational need
Children progress at different rates and have different ways in which they learn best but, if you have concerns, there are a number of things you can do...
Much will depend on the age and severity of the need, as we outline below.
Talk to your child's health visitor, nursery or pre-school teacher or headteacher. They will advise you on action you can take at this stage. For some conditions, medical, behavioural, motor issues (such as dyspraxia) or speech difficulties for example, your GP can be a good first contact. They can refer you to therapists or for further assessments. The government green paper on special needs proposes that all children should be assessed for special needs during these early formative years. It is likely the onus will be on specially trained health visitors but the paper does not say how they will be trained or when.
School age children (5+)
Talk to your child's class-teacher, the school's SENCo, or head teacher. Voice your concerns; it may be they haven't spotted things you have, or that they have some concerns which, when coupled with yours, suggest some form of intervention may be appropriate.
Be prepared: consider whether your child is making the progress expected for their age and if there is anything you can do to help at home. If you make an appointment to speak to an education or health professional be prepared before you meet; write down all the points you want to make, better still keep a diary or record of incidents and experiences that support your case. Remember you know your child best.
If the school (or health professionals) share your concerns, they will decide on the appropriate type and level of support or intervention - usually school action or school action plus in school, or referral to a therapists if you have sought medical help.
Exceptionally, medical and/or health professionals may decide your child needs to undergo a statutory assessment, with a view to your child being statemented.
If the school doesn't share your concerns and you are still not happy with the explanations given, pursue the matter, seeking independent advice or information if necessary. Your GP or health visitor may be able to help. Alternatively seek out independent advice from an Educational Psychologist.
Private EP reports usually cost between £300 and £500 but may be more. Their findings are not binding, a school does not have to act on them but it may be enough to set the ball rolling or to give you peace of mind.
SEN state of flux
The Children and Families Bill 2014 is changing the face of special needs and placing a new focus on special educational needs and disability (SEND). The act and code cover children and young people who have a disability if they also have SEN. Educational needs are the key reason for a plan being issued. Young people with a disability, with health and/or care needs but no SEN are not covered by the act and code but they are covered via other acts including The Equality Act 2010 and the Health and Social Care Act 2012. Existing Statements will be phased out by 2018 and LDAs by 2016.
From September 2014 any new assessment, for the two percent or so of young people with greatest needs, whose special educational needs the local authority feel cannot be met within mainstream resources, will be via an EHC plan. The plan will potentially cover a young person from ages 0-25. There is no automatic right to education to age 25 but an EHC plan may be maintained beyond age 19 if the young person remains in education and or training because educational and or training outcomes have not been achieved and remaining in education/training will enable those outcomes to be achieved and:
- special educational provision is still needed
- the young person wants to remain in education or training to complete or consolidate their learning (includes provision designed to help them prepare for adulthood).
Young people who enter employment or higher education, including university will not be eligible for an EHC plan but they should be given support to help them transition. Those with complex learning difficulties or disabilities, who move to supported internships to help them prepare for employment, will likely be covered.
An EHC plan should be timely with planning and assessment completed within 20 weeks. Much of the finer details of EHC plans have yet to be worked out but they are intended to provide greater flexibility and choice via a focus on personalisation, giving young people a voice and role in the decisions about them, joined up services and personal budgets. Individualised outcomes for the young person take centre stage - their needs, where they will be placed and the provision they receive to meet those needs must be personal to them; the onus is on why that provision will make a difference to the individual child, rather than to children as a whole. The emphasis is on partnership and on having a voice that is heard and acted on.
The picture is less clear for the twenty percent of young people with SEND who do not have a statement/EHC plan but the expectation is that any provision will largely be met from within existing school budgets. At the time of writing a new code of practice was being drafted; this will guide schools and education providers, the NHS and clinical providers and SEND tribunals as to their obligations under the act.
How do I find out what is available in my local authority?
For all children with SEND, local authorities, health agencies and those involved with social care must work with parents and young people to understand how to meet needs and to do so with minimum disruption to the young person and their family.
To assist families LAs must set out in one place and publish, (likely web based), their ‘Local Offer’. The local offer should be comprehensive, collaborative, accessible and contain transparent information that shows what is available in their own LA and in neighbouring LAs - extending nationally to very specialist provision, if there is a reasonable assumption that parents, carers and/or young people would access those services. Simply listing services won’t suffice, LAs have to ensure provision is responsive to needs. As well as what is available in the education arena there is a requirement to include information about: travel, transition, training (including apprenticeships), how to access SEN support such as parent groups and forums, childcare and leisure activities including sports and the arts and where/ how to complain and how to act on that complaint.
The draft code says the local offer should be collaborative and stipulates parents as part of that, if you don’t like your LAs local offer you have the opportunity to have input. Those LAs generally ahead of the curve are the ones that were part of thePathfinder Programme, trialling the reforms, these include Bromley and Bexley, Greenwich, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lewisham and Medway. More information can be found at www.sendpathfinder.co.uk.
State school admissions
Regardless of your child's ability you are not ‘free to choose’ a school but you can ‘express a preference' then keep everything tightly crossed. You do not have to live in a school’s ‘catchment area’ to apply for a place but often proximity to the school is key. Oversubscribed schools must follow their own admissions rules, with places allocated to those who best fulfil them. Grammar schools and sixth forms do not have to take those who don't come up to scratch academically but otherwise undersubscribed schools must take all-comers (unless the child has a Statement - see below).
If your child has an EHC plan you or your child can, with the help of your LA, name the maintained mainstream or special school you would like your child to attend, you can also name an academy or free school, a non-maintained special or independent special school (ie one that caters wholly for children with SEN) or a further education or sixth form college where applicable. The school has to admit your child unless the governing body thinks doing so would be ‘unsuitable for the age, ability, aptitude or SEN of the child or young person; or the attendance of the child or young person there would be incompatible with the efficient education of others; or the efficient use of resources’. The ‘incompatible’ part is not defined but case law has set the barrier high - eg simply impacting the education of other children is not sufficient.
If your child has an EHC plan and you don’t get the school you named you can appeal to the SEND tribunal. The parent or young person must first ‘consider mediation’ but mediation is not compulsory.
The SEN debate - which school type?
Choosing a school is not only about the cut of the cloth, it’s about getting the perfect fit, everything from the first tack to the last stitch.
Of course, there’s a difference between bespoke and Burton’s, but that doesn’t mean the former is the only, or even the right option; the suit may fit, the colour may not flatter. Some schools cater extremely well for the very bright, mildly dyslexic child, but would be hopeless for other SEN. Having good dyslexia provision alone does not necessarily make it the right school for your child with dyslexia, just as having a wheelchair-accessible school does not make it a haven for the wheelchair user.
You need to examine a school from all perspectives to ensure the fit is a good one. At one extreme, some schools do not deal with nor recognise any SEN. At the other extreme, some schools are very specialised, suitable perhaps for children with severe communication difficulties. Sometimes provision really does not exist and compromises have to be made.
Visit a selection of schools and visit shortlisted schools more than once.
Don’t choose a school just because it says it offers provision for dyslexia or whatever; choose a school because it suits your child. If a school doesn’t advertise that it caters for SEN, but you like it and think it suits your child – ask. You’d be surprised how many schools that do well by children with SEN don’t advertise the fact (‘we don’t want to be seen as a special school’).
Bright but undiagnosed severe dyslexics have even made it to Oxbridge. The list of talented people with a special educational need is a long one but includes such well-known personalities as: Richard Branson, Cher, Leonardo Da Vinci, Albert Einstein, Bill Gates, Keira Knightley, Michael Phelps, Steve Redgrave, Stephen Spielberg and Virginia Woolf.
Choosing a school
Choose your school with care: don’t assume any school with a good special needs department will be perfect. A sympathetic special needs coordinator (SENCo) is a great starting point, but the head’s attitude to special needs will have a pervasive influence on the school; if the head is cautious you should be wary. Timely (and possibly individual) intervention is great, but will only be really effective if set against a backdrop of understanding across all teaching and support staff. A child doesn’t abandon their difficulties when they leave the learning support department. A dyslexic child may well have a very high verbal and/or non-verbal IQ yet struggle to read, scan, write or spell. If a child has poor memory or processing difficulties these will, if left unattended, impact on their overall progress and subsequent self-esteem. Dyslexia may be mainly associated with reading and writing, but it affects more than just English lessons: the writing and sequencing demands of history can be a problem; similarly, the multi-tasking of many sports can create difficulties for the dyslexic and/or the dyspraxic child if the coaching style is not empathetic. A child with Asperger’s may be desperate to join in activities and to mix with others but require support and reassurance to do so — not just in the classroom but on the sports pitch, in the playground and beyond.
Schools offer a range of provision from fairly minimal intervention to tailor- made curricula. If a school appears perfect, get in touch and find out how they would be prepared to help – you may be surprised by the response.
If you’re choosing a mainstream school for a child with a relatively mild/moderate SEN, request a copy of the school’s special educational needs policy and (if the school is independent) ask how much extra you will have to pay for the support that you want.
A good school will:
- Test /screen all children, for SEN, on entry or at the first sign of any difficulties.
- Likely have other pupils in the school with special needs supported by qualified specialist teachers.
- Ensure special needs support is an integral part of the school, with a two-way flow of information between specialists and subject teachers. Schools where SEN support is an ‘add on’, are really only suitable for very mild cases.
- Give careful consideration to what a pupil will miss out on to receive extra help.
- Have a supportive head. If the head is not enthusiastic about helping SEN children staff may not be as supportive or understanding as they should be.
- Seek to build self-esteem — to find something your child is good at and encourage your child’s areas of strength.
- Use multi-sensory learning and teaching methods with lessons in relatively short sections.
- Have full regard to the SEN code of practice and make use of concessions for exams, such as providing a laptop, or an amanuensis and train children in the use of these. For public examination concessions you will need an up-to-date educational psychologist’s report.
Never ask ‘Is this the best you can do?’ For some children with SENs pastoral care can be as important as specialist understanding of a particular disability.
When you visit, talk to some pupils with the same diagnosis as your child — are they bubbling with pride and confidence?
What can I expect?
Teachers and others working with children are becoming notably more alert to SEN, and supportive of formal assessment. Many schools now routinely screen for specific learning difficulties and a good classroom teacher will be alert to special needs. However, formal assessment for SEN is not something a classroom teacher can do; they have neither the time nor the training. It is carried out by educational psychologists (EP). Don’t be put off by the title: the good ones are friendly, helpful and accommodating. If you have any reason to suspect your child has special or additional needs, consider getting a formal assessment. A good EP will administer a battery of well-proven tests in a way that your child will find interesting, even fun, rather than frightening. They will produce a detailed written report that describes your child’s educational characteristics and the reasons for them and clearly explains any terminology used as well as the impact of their findings. Generally, that’s it — no further analysis or treatment, though you may want a progress report after a few years. An EP’s report (especially one from an EP known to the school) can be a most marvellous lever in your dealings with a school: ‘He did this, because you did that — as you should have expected, because it says so here’. Closest thing in this world to the Elder Wand.
Helping the child who is struggling at school
The type of school and provision that you should look for will depend very much on your child’s abilities and on the extent to which their disability affects their learning. Consider the extent to which your child’s disability is affecting their progress: you want a school that happily talks of successes with pupils who face similar challenges and is at least as interested in your child’s ability, talents and interests as they are in their difficulties or differences.
Typically SEN children will need additional or special assistance or consideration to put them on a level playing field with their peers. For some, equality can be achieved by relatively simple measures: having a scribe or being given extra time in exams; for others, even specialist equipment and many- to-one teaching will not make life equable.
A good school is likely to:
- Teach a child one thing 20 ways (if required), not 20 things one way.
- Understand the learning processes and work diagnostically, closely monitoring, recording and reviewing progress and using that as a catalyst for further learning.
- Use multi-sensory learning and teaching styles.
- Understand that when a child’s needs are not being met and seek to address those shortcomings.
- Actively assist with access arrangements.
- Work with parents/carers to agree suitable strategies for the child.
- Have some specialist help on hand.
- Listen to parents and act on their concerns.
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